HISTORICAL & GEOGRAPHICAL DESCRIPTION
Canakkale is not only name of a city but also the province including the battelefileds and memorials of GALLIPOLI, the legendary ancient city TROY, the mystical and fascinating ancient city ASSOS, the popular historical resort island BOZCAADA, the impressive nature of MOUNT IDA and lovely GOKCEADA . According to the reports of Ministry of Culture and Tourism, there are about 175 archaeological, 34 natural and 5 historical sites in the province of Canakkale.
The city of Canakkale lends its name to the strait, whose shores touch both Europe and Asia, while connecting the sea of Marmara to the Aegean. Canakkale hosts the 60 km (38 miles) long strait, which is well-known as Dardanelles. It would be a privilege to enjoy the impressive scene of dardanelles, which is one of the two straits that split the continents Asia and Europe. Throughout the history, anyone who controlled this gateway commanded a highly strategic area. This has stimulated the importance of canakkale province as the homeland of many civilizations and critical battles throughout the centruies. According to the Archaeologists, there are about 200 ancient sites in the province of Canakkale, where many of them are still unexcavated.
Hellespont is the ancient name for this strait. The history of the area can be traced back to 3000 B.C. According to the mythology, the children of King Athamas, Phryxus and Helle, were sent away by their step mother, Nephele, the goddess of cloud. They were mounted on a flying ram with a golden fleece. While they were flying over the straits, Pincess Helle fell off the ram into the water. Thus, the name Hellespont appeared. Phryxus flew to the Colchis, where he sacrificed the ram to the Zeus and hung its golden fleece on a tree, to be guarded by a fierce dragon.
Another commonly told story of the region is about the towns ‘Abydose’ on the Asian shore and ‘ Sestus ‘ on the European shore. Leander was a handsome youth from Abydos, who was in love with Hero, a priestess of Aphrodite. Every night, he was swimming from Abydos to Sestus to see her. One night there was a terrible storm and he had never arrived. Hero, asuming that Leander had drowned, threw herself into the sea.
Troy (Truva), also called Ilium, is located at Hissarlik on the east side of the river Scamander, where the straits join with the Agean Sea. Wooden Horse and the Archilles’ Hell come from here. Troy is famous for several reasons. It is a site that was continually occupied from the early Bronze Age to early Byzantine times. It is also associated with the sagas of the Trojan War written by Homer in ‘ the iliad and odyssey ‘, which is the well-known in European literature. Homer immortalized Truva (Troy) in his stories of King Priam, Hector, Paris and the beautiful Helen. Archaelogical digs have revealled nine cities with various ruins of city walls, typical house- foundations, a temple and a theather. A symbolic wooden Trojan horse commemorates the legandary war. Historical port, Alexandria – Troas, was constructed during 3rd century B. C. and St. Paul had visited here two times, and his third missioner voyage to Assos was started from here.
The excavations of Troy can be traced back to 1870s, which can be considered as another historical event by its own. From 1988 onwards, excavations have been directed by Professor Manfred Korfman of Tubingen University in Germany.
Apollo Smintheus Temple, where first episode of Iliad epic emerged, is located around Gulpinar village. Temple ruins and pieces of art revealed from the temple can be visited in here. Furthermore, Zeus’s Cavern can be visited on the front side of a cliff, which is at the upper side of Adatepe Village of Kucukkuyu.
Other familiar historical names can be stated as follow; Neandria, Alexandria-Troas, Assos, Chryse, Dardonos and Lampsakos. The traces of several civilizations can be found in the province of Canakkale. The Persians were here in the 5th century B.C.; the persian King Xerves built his bridge of boats across the narrowest point of Dardanelles to land 100.000 troops on Thrace as part of his planned conquest of Europe. Alexander the Great began his eastern campaign by crossing the strait. The Romans took over the area between 2 B.C until 395 A.D., later on the Byzantine Empire ruled the area. There were Arab and Crusader invasions in the following centuries. The Karasiogullari, a Turkish tribe, came into the area in the 14 th century and made Balikesir their capital. In the 15th century, Sultan Mehmet the Conqueror built citadels on both banks of the strait and founded the city of Canakkale.
Dardanelles also played an important role in the first world war . The eight month-long struggle between the Allies and Turkish forces is known as Gallipoli Campaign. Serious casualties were given on both sides. Several countries have involved this battle such as Turkey, United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, France, and so on. Every year on April 25th ( The so called Anzac Day ) , Gallipoli is invaded again not by the Allied troops, but by their descendants, other veterans, and tourists. The sounds of the riffle fire ring out at Anzac Cove, but this time as a salute to hereos by the Turkish Honor Guard.
When you reach Gallipoli peninsula you can feel the spirit of the heroes from several countries. Today Gallipoli peninsula is a national park, which acts as an open air museum and is open to all visitors who come to pay respect in many memorials. The following words are quoted from Ataturk , the famous Turkish commander of Gallipoli and the founders of modern Turkish Republic.
Those heroes that shed their blood and
lost their lives…!
You are now lying in
the soul of a friendly country, therefore
rest in peace. There is no difference between
the Johnnies and the Mehmets to us where they
lie side by side.
You, the mothers who sent their sons far away
from their countries, wipe away your tears. Your sons are now
lying in our bosom and are in peace. After having
lost their lives on this land, they have become
our sons as well.”
The core of settlement in the city founded on the shores of the Strait in the Ottoman era was around the Çimenlik Castle, built in1462. The fortress, which remains well preserved to this day and now serves as the Naval Museum, had Muslim military personnel, staff and public servants that were appointed to defend the Strait from the fortress, and who established a residential district around the Fatih Mosque called Cami-i Kebir. At the same time the Romanians who had worked on the building of the fortress settled in the Çay (Streamlet) district.
Following the forming of these two districts, the Greeks who were heavily involved in the shipping sector moved to the town from surrounding areas. They founded the Rum (Anatolian Greek) district to the north of Cami-i Kebir. At same time Armenians also moved into the town and settled around the Zafer Meydanı (Victory Square) church area.
The marketplace for the city was established to the north of the fortress. As small industries developed on the bank of the Sarıçay, artisans settled to the south of the Armenian district and to the east of the Çay district.
The town, at the time known as Kale-î Sultaniye, took its current name Çanakkale either from the fortress, whose appearance was reminiscent of a bowl, or from the pottery for which the town became famous. (Çanak in Turkish means bowl)
Çanakkale progressed towards becoming a city up to the 18th century, due to the increasing economic importance of the Straits, growing more prosperous as it developed into a port city. As the older districts expanded the Armenians that used to deal with trade began settling in and built in the Jewish district. With the Straits trade and its being a port city foreign government established consulates in Çanakkale, with the number of diplomatic missions reaching 20 in a short time. They formed the trade missions district on the waterfront.
With the decline of the Ottoman in the 19th century, many of the Muslims living on the Aegean islands, the Crimean Peninsula and the Balkans began migrating to the Anatolian mainland. Some of those who found their homelands unsafe moved to Çanakkale, with the Tatar district being founded. At the same time, the city’s non-Muslim population, rather than moving, continued to grow and spread, establishing a new Rum district.
Turkey has territory both in the continents of Asia and, to a lesser extend, in Europe. Only two of Turkey’s provinces, namely Istanbul and Çanakkale, have territories that are both in Asia and Europe.
Çanakkale is separated by a strait, which is named after the city. The Çanakkale Straits (the Dardanelles) link the Mediterranean and Aegean Seas to the Marmara and Black Seas. The water of these two great seas flows in two separate currents, the lower flowing up the Strait and the surface one flowing down. The climate of Çanakkale is a mixture of that of the Mediterranean and Black Sea.
The Dardanelles Strait is 65 kilometres (35 miles) long and its width varies between one to six kilometres (0.75-four miles). Its average depth is about 100 metres (328 feet.)
The province generally has middle height mountains and plateaus. 44 % of land is mountains, 39,5 % plateaus, 14,8 % plains and 17 % meadows. The highest mountain is Ida Mountain with 1767 m altitude. On the other hand, Koru Mountain 726 meter high in Gallipoli Peninsula and being alignment of Tekir Mountains. Regarding the climate conditions, it reflects transitional characteristics due to its geographical situation.
The climate generally low in winter because of being in north. Minimum temperature is – 5, 8 0C where maximum temperature is +38,8 0C’. Average is 14,8 0C annually and humidity rate 72.6 %. The centre of Canakkale is generally windy most of the year. 54 % of province is covered by forest.
Annual rainfall average is 629,1 mm. The rainiest months are November, December and January where the least rainy months are July, August and September. The rains are generally fallen 46 % in winter, 25 % in autumn, 22 % spring and 0, 7 % summer.
The cereals cover the widest percentage in the total planted area in Canakkale which are mainly wheat, barley, rye, and oats. Leading cereals are cultivated in Bayramic, Biga, Can, and Yenice. The cultivation of cereals are generally made under dry agricultural conditions when recent exceptional cases are eliminated. The agriculture can be done 12 months of the year in Canakkale.
The most important agricultural products after cereals are tomatoes, olives, and grapes. Tomato production is 8,8% of Turkey production while broad beans constituting 50% .The qualified olive production is in the coastal villages of Ayvacik and Ezine is the main income. Canakkale’s tomatoes are the most famous tomatoes in Turkey. Olive oil is also very famous with its quality.
The viniculture, which is very important agricultural activity for centuries, continues also nowadays.
Çanakkale is a province, at the same time; peaches, apples, cherries and some fruits are grown because of the productive earth and temperate climate. Bayramiç apple and cherry, Umurbey peach are well known brand names in Turkey.
Recently, organic farming has been growing very fast in Çanakkale. As a result of increase in olive tree plantation, olive oil production and export of olive oil has taken place an important role.
According to records of Canakkale Agriculture Authority, there are 7.608 farmer produce olive in Canakkale. Again, according to statistics of the same corporation, in our city, there are 34 facilities which have the olive processing capacity of 98.946 Tonnage annually
By the contribution of our chamber of commerce, the olive and olive oil producers of Canakkale have begun to make significant progress toward subjects such as overseas markets, attending expositions, packing, quality, becoming a brand, marketing. In that field, organic olive farming has been becoming prevalent.
Livestock and Fishery Products
Livestock is one of the main incomes in rural areas of Canakkale. Also, Canakkale city is the second place for fishery after Istanbul in Marmara Region .The Canakkale Bosphorus is quite rich about fish.
On the other hand, cultural fishing is also supported as part of “Gokceada & Bozcaada Agricultural Development & Settlement Project”.
Among these products, especially, meat and yogurt from Biga, and cheese from Ezine are mostly required animal products in Turkey. Now, the name “Ezine Cheese” has been branded by Turkish Quality Institute.
Progressive development and structure would have been observed in Canakkale sub industry, dependent on mainly agriculture in the last 25 years. Those are vegetables, fruits, sea and meat products, flour, bait, oil and drinks sub branches.
Apart from food sector, the main concentrations of Canakkale manufacture industry is the industry based on soil and stone operating with global brand plants Kaleseramik, Canakkale Seramik and Kalebodur produce their world famous ceramic production in Çan, Canakkale. Furthermore there is a company that produces sanitary ware called Kalevit in the same town. Also, Kalemaden A.Ş produces ceramic raw materials and also offers them to the domestic and foreign markets. Additionally, there are some other companies in Canakkale that are very famous in their own area in Turkey. Those are İçdaş iron production, Akçansa cement production, Doğtaş furniture production, Tahsildaroğlu cheese production, Dardanel seafood production.
The city industrial zone has 68 parcel of land after uniting, and 48 of them have been allocated to 42 entrepreneur. Main production fields in the zone are; food, textile, automotive, plastic, machinery and tolls, wood and under the “other” title fibre boat manufacturing, concrete-parquet-stone, medical gas filling, glass cuts and engine works, wooden frame manufacturing, decorative hand arts, isolation-styrofoam manufacturing, electric conduit and power panel.
Canakkale port was being projected for the vessels with a capacity of maximum 25.000 DWT. The dock is consist of 4 main piers, each of them 53,5 mt. Total pier length 214,50 meter and the width 24 meter. The vessels are thought to be 7.500 GT average. In this sense, 2 vessels can berth near to dock at the same time.
There are two platforms of dock. Each platform is 1-3 m in the sea level altitude.
When one takes into consideration the weather conditions; we may calculate 300 workdays. Thus; 300/2 = 150 is annual serviceable vessel number.
It was also considered that in the first five years, biweekly two Ro-Ro vessels; and from 2008 on; weekly one Ro-Ro vessel could be anchored, which was assumed approximately 400 vehicles carrying capacity.
The seaport was designed as an harbour for the goods traffic and human outgoings. The bureaucratic processes have begun for the above-mentioned operations. For the moment, temporary measurements were taken to realize harbour operations.
AIRPORT AN&D DOMESTIC FLIGHTS
The revitalization of the airport has been realized by NGO’s in Çanakkale; mainly the Chamber; under the auspices of National Government Ankara. Flights helped enhance economic attractiveness of the city and allot more quotas in tourism potential.
Between 60 and 70 percent of occupancy rate of those flights are an essential indicator of revitalization in the prosperity of Canakkale. By our chamber’s efforts to modernize and increase the capacity of the airport terminal building, the construction was completed and the building was put in commission in 20 February 2008.
Turkish Airlines flights from Istanbul to Canakkale are given below.